Friday, January 16, 2015

More People, No Fish

This week’s SCIENCE has an interesting review on the loss of oceanic fauna (1). The review points out that the loss of terrestrial fauna over the last 50,000 years or so has been far greater than loss of marine fauna. However, it also notes that humans have only had the technology to seriously impact the oceans for a couple of hundred years. The review ends on a somewhat upbeat note saying that we can learn from past experience on land and devise ways to protect the oceans. However, I can’t help but being more pessimistic in light of the ever-growing human population that will result in greater demands on fisheries and increasing pollution of marine environments both locally and globally.

While marine sanctuaries and controls on fishing may be helpful as the article suggests, it is often not possible reverse the effects of extreme over-fishing; witness the failure of cod stocks to return to the Grand Banks after twenty years of protection. Perhaps more importantly increasing human populations and increased economic development are leading to widespread degradation of the marine environment just as they do on land. Agricultural run-off, destruction of coastal marshes for housing and fish-farms, release of plastics and other chemicals into the sea, as well as the global warming created by our carbon based economy will all accelerate as the human population increases. Poor fish!

Thursday, January 8, 2015

Slow Career Development for Young Biomedical Scientists

In a recent commentary in PNAS (1) Ronald Daniels, the President of Johns Hopkins University, discusses the increasingly slow career progression for young scientists. He points out that the average age for attaining an initial medical school faculty appointment has gone up by about 5 years between 1980 and today while the average age for the first NIH R01 grant for MDs has gone from 38 to 45 yrs.  While Daniels mentions several possible contributory factors, clearly the key is the ever-increasing length of the postdoctoral training period. This in turn is built on the continuing over-production of biomedical Ph.Ds which raises the level of completion for ‘real’ jobs in academia or industry to impossible levels. 

As stated previously on this blog the solutions to this problem are first to reduce the supply of Ph.D trainees and second to begin to develop stable career paths in science that are distinct from the traditional professor/PI pathway.